The calves are our future dairy cows, so much as possible effort is invested into their rearing. Also they are the genetically most superior and therefore most valuable animals on the farm. After being born they are immediately removed from their dams and bottle fed with colostrum for the first week of their life. Thereafter they are suckled/foster fed by Nanny-Cows (low producing cows towards the end of their lactation or chronic mastitis cows) for a maximum period of four months. For the first 2 months calves suckle add lib, which may add up to 10 litres of milk daily, afterwards their intake is gradually reduced to suckling empty teats. For their first year of life calves are zero- grazed and fed to optimum so we can breed them from 15 months old. We achieve